Table 1.

List of geospatial covariates assembled for mapping literacy, stunting and the use of modern contraception methods.

categorycovariatesdata source
travel timeaccessibilityEuropean Commission Joint Research Centre (
distancesdistance to settlements, roads, rivers, conflicts, schools and health facilityinput data from the WorldPop Project (, Open Street map (, ACLED (–5-data-1997–2014/)
climatetemperature, precipitation, aridity index, potential evapotranspirationMODIS (, Consortium for Spatial Information (CGIAR-CSI) (, WorldClim (
satellite indicesMODIS EVI, mid-infrared index, nightlightsMODIS, NOAA VIIRS (
demographicpopulation, births, pregnancies, ethnicityWorldPop Project, ETH Zurich (
topographyelevationUS Geological Survey (USGS) (, CGIAR-CSI
environmentprotected areas, percentage of urban areasWDPA (, input data from WorldPop Project
livestock densitiessmall ruminant, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, sheepFAO in collaboration with the Environmental Research Group Oxford (ERGO) (
economicgross cell productYale GEcon Research Project (
land/agricultureland cover, rainfed crop suitabilityNASA/USGS (, FAO FGGD (, ESA Globcover (