Table 2.

Dimensionless parameters of superhelical flagella: K = kM/km; R = AMkm; r = Am/AM; c = cM/cm; V = Vsperm/cm; a = arkm; n refers to number of large wavelengths. Embedded Image are the predicted average swimming velocities for the same-chirality and opposite-chirality s configurations, respectively.)

speciesKRrcNaVEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Aedes notoscriptus0.24*3.4*0.5*0.41*10.25*0.21 (0.16)1.2 (0.34)
Bacillus rossius0.45*4.2*0.0920.67*1.50.13*0.031 (0.033)0.30 (0.14)
Ceratitis capitata0.2516.80.0750.8*4–5a0.28*0.11*0.15 (0.039)c0.40 (0.021)36 (65)
Culicoides melleus0.161.50.3830.28*0.100.051 (0.15)0.30 (1.5)49 (50)
Drosophila obscura0.30*7.6*0.03*10.18*0.012 (0.0096)0.10 (0.036)
Lygaeus0.21*3*0.14*1–2b0.34*0.033 (0.081)0.24 (0.71)
Megaselia scalaris0.10*8.3*0.05*10.35*0.035 (0.065)0.16 (0.42)
Tenebrio molitor0.368.40.290.3240.28*0.340.40 (0.41)d1.2 (0.86)18 (21)
  • aA value of 4 is adopted in the simulation.

  • bA value of 1 is adopted in the simulation.

  • cVelocity in the z-direction occurs in the same direction as the wave propagation.

  • dVelocity in the z-direction occurs in the same direction as the wave propagation.