*A* | constant in analytical solution |

*α* | aspect ratio of copepod body |

*β* | propulsion force coefficient (N m^{−2}) |

*C*_{D} | drag coefficient |

*D* | drag (N) |

*η* | dynamic viscosity (Pa s) |

*F* | propulsion force (N) |

*γ* | parameter in propulsion force model |

*K* | increase of kinetic energy in beat phase (J) |

*L* | prosome length (mm) |

*m* | mass of copepod (kg) |

*m*_{f} | mass of displaced water (kg) |

*ν* | kinematic viscosity (m^{2} s^{−1}) |

*ϕ* | azimuthal angle (rad) |

*P*_{low} | average power at low Reynolds number (W) |

*P*_{high} | average power at high Reynolds number (W) |

*Q* | work to overcome drag in beat phase (J) |

*r* | radial coordinate (mm) |

*R* | radius of model copepod (mm) |

*ρ* | copepod density (kg m^{−3}) |

*ρ*_{f} | water density (kg m^{−3}) |

*Re* | Reynolds number based on instantaneous velocity |

*Re*_{max} | Reynolds number based on maximum velocity |

*Re*_{mean} | Reynolds number based on average velocity |

*t* | time (ms) |

*t*_{max} | time when maximum velocity is reached (ms) |

*T* | beat duration (ms) |

*τ* | Stokes time scale (ms) |

*u*_{ϕ} | azimuthal flow velocity (mm s^{−1}) |

*u*_{r} | radial flow velocity (mm s^{−1}) |

*u*_{z} | axial flow velocity (mm s^{−1}) |

*V* | copepod velocity (mm s^{−1}) |

*V*_{max} | maximum copepod velocity (mm s^{−1}) |

*V*_{mean} | average copepod velocity (mm s^{−1}) |

*Δ**V* | velocity fluctuation (mm s^{−1}) |

*W* | work of propulsion force in beat phase (J) |

*z* | axial coordinate along copepod body axis (mm) |