Bone remodelling is the continuous turnover of bone by resorption and formation. It is controlled by interstitial fluid flow sensed by osteocytes. The refilling of bone resorption sites has been shown to be curvature driven. In vitro, curvature influences tissue growth and cytoskeletal arrangements under static and perfused conditions. Nevertheless, this has only been demonstrated for non-mineralized tissue in limited three-dimensional volumes. This study aims at investigating the influence of three different channel curvatures (S, −2.00 mm−1; M, −1.33 mm−1; L, −0.67 mm−1) on mineralized tissue formation in three dimensions under static and perfused conditions. The ingrowth of mineralized tissue into the channels was dependent on curvature and was higher under perfusion (M and S channels). L channels were not closed in any group compared with partially (static) or fully (perfused) closed M and S channels. Mineralized tissue morphology was cortical-like in static samples and trabecular-like in perfused samples. Our results suggest that the three-dimensional in vitro model presented is not only able to reveal effects of curvature on mineralized tissue formation, but may be used as an in vitro model for critical size defects in trabecular or cortical bone.
- Received May 31, 2016.
- Accepted September 12, 2016.
- © 2016 The Author(s)
Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.