Despite the importance of immune cell–biomaterial interactions for the regenerative outcome, few studies have investigated how distinct three-dimensional biomaterials modulate the immune cell-mediated mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) recruitment and function. Thus, this work compares the response of varied primary human immune cell populations triggered by different model scaffolds and describes its functional consequence on recruitment and motility of bone marrow MSC. It was found that polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan scaffolds lead to an increase in the metabolic activity of macrophages but not of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), natural killer (NK) cells or monocytes. PBMC and NK cells increase their cell number in PLA scaffolds and express a secretion profile that does not promote MSC recruitment. Importantly, chitosan increases IL-8, MIP-1, MCP-1 and RANTES secretion by macrophages while PLA stimulates IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 production, all chemokines that can lead to MSC recruitment. This secretion profile of macrophages in contact with biomaterials correlates with the highest MSC invasion. Furthermore, macrophages enhance stem cell motility within chitosan scaffolds by 44% but not in PLA scaffolds. Thus, macrophages are the cells that in contact with engineered biomaterials become activated to secrete bioactive molecules that stimulate MSC recruitment.
Electronic supplementary material is available online at doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.c.3461748.
- Received July 18, 2016.
- Accepted August 23, 2016.
- © 2016 The Author(s)
Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.