Movie S1: M. primoryensis binding to a single ice crystal in solution. A small ice crystal (~ 50 um) is held in the middle of a drop of bacterial suspension at a temperature slightly below the ice melting point. Bacteria are freely swimming in the solution around it. The crystal is growing slowly while bacteria are attaching its surface. Real temperature and time are shown at the top and bottom, respectively.
Movie S2: M. primoryensis binds to a growing ice surface without being engulfed. Ice was grown in the MCF device before bacteria were injected. As the ice grows, the bacteria bind to its surface. It is clear that the bacteria advance with the ice front and are not incorporated into the crystal. The movie shows parts of a period of 30 min of growth.
Movie S3: P. syringae do not bind to ice. As in movie S1, but with a control bacterium (P. syringae) lacking the surface-bound ice adhesin.
Movie S4: Melting of a single ice crystal covered by M. primoryensis. Ice was formed in the presence of TmAFP to prevent growth. Bacteria were allowed to accumulate on the ice for a period of 30 min (time is shown at the bottom) and then the temperature (shown at the top) was elevated. When the crystal melted the bacteria were released into solution.
Movie S5: Ice melting in a microfluidic chip with M. primoryensis. Ice was grown in the presence of the bacteria and during the growth process some bacteria were trapped between the chip surface and the ice. Some patches full of bacteria (microcolonies) can be seen, as well as bacteria in the channel formed between adjacent ice crystals. When the ice melted, the patch of bacteria gets closer to the ice front after which the bacteria are released into the medium. Movement of a bacterium in the channel is also apparent.
Movie S6: M. primoryensis in the presence of anti MpIBP_RIV antibodies do not bind to ice. An experiment similar to that shown in movie S1 was done after incubation of the bacteria with anti-MpIBP_RIV serum, which blocked the ability of the bacteria to bind ice.
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